中英對照 – 生鮮蔬菜真的比冷凍蔬菜來的營養嗎?

中英對照 – 生鮮蔬菜真的比冷凍蔬菜來的營養嗎?

前言

相信大家都會有一種觀念,就是生鮮的蔬菜或肉類,絕對比冷凍的更有營養,但 BBC 有一篇報導指出,並不是所有的蔬菜都是符合這一個觀念的!究竟是為什麼呢?小編自己也是充滿著好奇,一同跟著 WORD UP 來看看這篇報導吧!


本文

Frozen, fresh or canned food: What’s more nutritious?   By Jessica Brown 28th April 2020

Tinned and frozen fruits and vegetables tend to be seen as less nutritious than fresh versions. But that’s not always the case.

人們認為罐裝和冷凍的水果和蔬菜比新鮮的食品缺少更多的營養,但這並非總是如此。

In recent weeks, as shoppers have looked to stock up on food that lasts, sales of canned and frozen food have surged. Even freezer sales are up. But many of us are taught to believe that when it comes to fruit and vegetables, nothing is as nutritious as fresh produce.

最近幾週,由於購物者希望儲備可以存放較久的食品,因此罐裝和冷凍食品的銷量激增。甚至冷凍機的銷量都在增長。但是,我們許多人從小被灌輸在水果和蔬菜方面,沒有什麼比新鮮的更營養豐富了。

By reaching for tinned or frozen versions, are we doing a disservice to our health?

難道罐裝或冷凍的食品,真的對我們的健康有害嗎?

When answering this question, it’s important to remember that food is most nutritious at the point of harvest, says Fatima Hachem, Senior Nutrition Officer at the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization. Fresh produce starts degrading as soon as it’s picked from the ground or tree, because that ground or tree is its source of nutrients and energy.

聯合國糧食及農業組織高級營養官 Fatima Hachem 說,在回答這個問題時,請務必記住食物在收穫時最有營養。從地面或樹上採摘的新鮮農產品就開始降解,因為該地面或樹是其營養和能量的來源。

“Vegetables destined for cooking fresh might lose some of their nutritional value if they stay for long on the shelves,” Hachem says.

Hachem 說到:“如果準備長時間存放在貨架上,則可能會使蔬菜失去一些營養價值,”

Once picked, that fruit or veg is still using its own nutrients, breaking them down in order to keep its cells alive. And some nutrients are particularly vulnerable. Vitamin C, which helps the human body absorb iron, helps reduce cholesterol levels and protects against free radicals, is also especially sensitive to oxygen and light.

一旦採摘,該水果或蔬菜仍在使用其自身的營養素,將其分解以保持其細胞存活,而且某些營養素特別脆弱。像是維生素C有助於人體吸收鐵,有助於降低膽固醇水平並防止自由基侵害,對氧氣和光線也特別敏感。

Refrigerating produce slows down the process of nutrition degradation, although the rate at which nutritional value is lost varies from one product to the next.

冷藏產品減緩了營養降解的過程,雖然各個農產品之間,損失的比率並不同(見下文)。

In 2007, Diane Barrett, a former food science and technology researcher at the University of California, Davis, reviewed numerous studies looking into the nutritional content of fresh, frozen and tinned fruits and vegetables. She found that spinach, for example, loses 100% of its vitamin C content in seven days if stored at a room temperature of 20C (68F); it loses 75% if refrigerated. But carrots, by contrast, only lose 27% of their vitamin C content when stored for a week at room temperature.

2007年,戴維斯加州大學戴維斯分校的前食品科學與技術研究員 Diane Barrett 進行了許多研究,研究了新鮮、冷凍,和罐裝水果和蔬菜的營養成分。她發現,例如,菠菜如果在20°C(68°F)的室溫下保存,將在7天內損失100%的維生素C含量;如果冷藏,它將損失75%。但是,相比之下,胡蘿蔔在室溫下保存一周僅損失其維生素C含量的27%。

Credit: Getty Images

“Spinach is very thin, so there’s more loss of moisture and exposure to heat and oxygen compared to, say a carrot, which is denser,” says Barrett.

Barrett 說:“菠菜質地很細,所以與胡蘿蔔相比,菠菜的水分和流失更多,因為接觸到更多的陽光和氧氣。”

But all other vegetables in Barrett’s research lost significantly less vitamin C when they were frozen. That included spinach, which only lost 30% of its vitamin C when frozen.

但是在 Barrett 的研究中,所有其他蔬菜在冷凍時損失的 維生素C 明顯較少。其中包括菠菜,菠菜冷凍時僅損失了30%的維生素C。

This is because freezing pauses the process of oxidisation, which is one reason that produce can start to turn brown after being harvested.

這是因為凍結會暫停氧化過程,這是收穫後農產品可能開始變成褐色的原因之一。

Speed freeze 急速冷凍

Freezing produce on a mass scale is a relatively new innovation for the food industry.

對於食品產業而言,大規模冷凍產品是相對較新的創新。

Take the humble frozen pea. Today, the pea can be harvested, transported to a factory, washed, blanched and frozen in just over two hours. In the 1970s, it would have taken days.

拿不起眼的冷凍豌豆舉例。現今的時代,豌豆可以從收穫、運輸到工廠,再進行清洗、煮燙和冷凍只要兩個多小時的時間。但在1970年代,要花好幾天的時間。

“Compare that [timescale] to fresh vegetables – most of which are harvested, sent to a packing plant, packed, graded, shipped to retailers, then put in the consumer baskets,” says Richard Harrow, chief executive of the British Frozen Food Federation, the frozen food sector’s trade association in the UK. “About 99% of time, this process takes longer than the time taken to harvest, process and freeze peas.”

英國冷凍食品聯合會首席執行官 Richard Harrow 說:“相較之下,新鮮蔬菜大多數是從收穫,送到包裝廠,包裝,分級,運輸到零售商,然後放入消費籃。”  “大約有99%的時間在做這些事,此過程比收穫,加工和冷凍豌豆所需的時間更長。”

Credit: Getty Images

Speed is crucial in the frozen food industry: as soon as produce is taken from the ground, it’s a nutritional race against time. Technological innovation has shortened the process of freezing foods over the last few decades, including peas, which are individually quick frozen, Harrow says, using a metal trough that opens at both ends and has a grate on the bottom. Underneath the trough, high-speed fans blow cold air up towards peas, which are “suspended in a cushion of air”. They’re then placed in cold storage until they’re put into packaging. Most other vegetables follow a similar process.


閱讀 BBC Future 原文:Frozen, fresh or canned food: What’s more nutritious?


重點單字

🌟 tinned adj. (尤指食品)罐裝的

[例句] I don’t like tinned tomatoes/spaghetti/milk.

[中譯] 我不喜歡罐裝的番茄/義大利麵條/牛奶。

🌟 harvest n. 收穫時節;收割,收穫;收成

[例句] We had a good harvest this year.

[中譯] 今年我們收成不錯。

🌟 agriculture n. 農業;農藝,農學

[例句] The area depends on agriculture for most of its income.

[中譯] 這個地區的大部分收入來自農業。

🌟 degrade v. 降解,自然分解

[例句] These chemicals quickly degrade into harmless compounds.

[中譯] 這些化學製品能很快分解為無害化合物。

🌟 oxidative adj. 氧化的

[例句] Stress cardiomyopathy is associated with increased oxidative stress.

[中譯] 應激性心肌病和氧化應激程度增加有關。

🌟 cholesterol n. 膽固醇

🌟 pea n. 豌豆

(例句來源:Cambridge Dictionary)

 

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